11,193,452 (July 2013 est.)
Arid to semiarid
514.1 XAF = 1 USD (2012 est.)
Sahr, Faya Largeau
Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, aetheist 3.1% (1993 census)
Chadian Arabic, Fulfulde, Kotoko, Kanembou
Head Of State
Idriss Deby Itno
Type of Government
Date of Independence
August 11, 1960
Oil, Cattle, Cotton, Gum Arabic
The oldest known humanoid skull—over seven million years old—was discovered in the Borkou region of Chad, indicating that the country has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The north central basin, now part of the Sahara Desert, supported human settlements and farming in the 7th millennium BCE and was traversed by traders and geographers in the late Middle Ages. Chad became a crossroads for both Muslim peoples of the desert and savanna regions and Bantu peoples of the tropical forests. Powerful kingdoms emerged: the Kanem-Bornu Empire in the 9th century CE, and the Baguirmi and Ouaddai kingdoms in the 16th century CE. Arab slave raids were widespread from the 1500s and continued into the 1920s, although child slave trafficking remains a significant problem in Chad today. In 1891, the French began establishing their authority through military expeditions against the dominant kingdoms, culminating in the Battle of Kousséri in 1900. Chad was absorbed into French Equatorial Africa and became a separate colony in 1920.
In 1960, the country gained its independence under the leadership of its authoritarian first president, François Tombalbaye, followed by decades of civil war. After Tombalbaye was assassinated in a 1975 military coup, General Félix Malloum served as head of state until ousted by his prime minister, Hissène Habré, in 1979. The Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition (GUNT) was established, with Goukouni Oueddei as president and Habré as Minister of Defense. Rivalry between ethnic groups escalated until Idriss Déby, one of Habré’s generals, defected to Sudan and led a series of attacks against Habré. In 1990, Déby’s forces marched upon the capital city of N’Djamena. His party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement (Mouvement Patriotique du Salut, MPS), soon chartered a new government under his presidency. In 2005, new rebel groups infiltrated the eastern border from Sudan. Nearly 300,000 Sudanese refugees have fled into Chad. Déby, having successfully eliminated the two-term constitutional limit, was re-elected in 2011 and remains in power.
John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., New Encyclopedia of Africa, Vol. 1 (Detroit, New York, San Francisco, New Haven, Waterville, and London: 2008), 363.
Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/).