The University of Iowa University of Iowa


Saberwal, Satish. "The Embu of Kenya." New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, 1972.
Sacks, Karen. "An Overview of Women in Power in Africa."  in Perspectives in Power: Women in Africa, e. Jean Barr, ed.  Duke University Press:  Durham,  1982.
Saitoti, Tepilit Ole, and Carol Beckwith. Maasai.  Harry N. Abrams, Inc.:  New York,  1980.
Salahi, Ibreahim el. "Portfolio: Paintings and Drawings."  African Arts.  Vol. 1, No. 1, 1967, pp. 16-26.
Salmons, Jill. "Mammy Wata."  African Arts.  Vol. 10, No. 3, 1977, pp. 8-15,87,88.
Samain, A. "Les Basonge."  Congo.  Vol. 1, 1924.
Sani, Habibu A. Sociology of the Ebira Tao People of Nigeria.  University of Ilorin Press:  Ilorin,  1993.
Sannes, G. W. African "Primitives": Function and Form in African Masks and Figures.  Faber and Faber:  London,  1970.
Sarpong, Peter. The Ceremonial Horns of the Ashanti.  Sedco:  Accra,  1990.
Sarpong, Peter. The Sacred Stools of the Akan.  Ghana Publishing Corporation (Publishing Division):  Accra-Tema,  1971.
Sasson, Hamo. "Kings, Cattle and Blacksmiths: Royal Insignia and Religious Symbolism in the Interlacutrine States."  Azania.  Vol. 18, 1983, pp. 93-106.
Savonnet, Georges. Les Birifor de Diepla et sa région, insulaires du rameau Lobi: Haute-Volta.  ORSTOM:  Paris,  1976.
Scanzi, Giovanni Franco. L'art traditionnel Lobi.  Ed. Milanos:  Bergamo,  1993.
Schaedler, Karl-Ferdinand. Afrikansiche Kunst in deutschen Privatsammlungen.  Munchner Buchgewerbhaus GmbH:  Munich,  1973.
Schaedler, Karl-Ferdinand. “Benin.” in Encyclopedia of African Art and Culture, 94-98. Munich: Panterra Verlag, 2009.
Schapera, Isaac. Government and Politics in Tribal Societies.  C. A. Watts:  London,  1963.
Schapera, Isaac. The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa: Bushmen and Hottentots, Reprint.  Routledge and Kegan Paul:  London,  1930.
Schapera, Isaac. The Tswana.  International African Institute:  London,  1953.
Schebesta, Paul. Among Congo Pigmies, Reprint, 1977.  AMS Press:  New York,  1933.
Scherer, J. H. "The Ha of Tanganyika."  Anthropos.  Vol. 54, 1959, pp. 841-904.
Schildkrout, Enid and Curtis A. Keim. African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire.  The American Museum of Natural History:  New York,  1990.
Schildkrout, Enid, editor.  The Golden Stool: Studies of the Asante Center and Periphery.  American Museum of Natural History:  New York,  1987.
Schildkrout, Enid, Jill Hellman and Curtis Keim. "Tradition and Innovation in Northeast Zaire."  African Arts.  Vol. 22, No. 2, 1989, pp. 38-47, 102.
Schildkrout, Enid. "Revisiting Emil Torday's Congo."  African Arts.  Vol. 25, No. 1, 1992, pp. 60-69, 99, 100.
Schildkrout, Enid. Mangbetu Ivories: Innovations between 1910 and 1914.  African Studies Center, Boston University:  Boston,  1990.
Schmalenbach, Werner, editor.  African Art: The Barbier-Müller Collection.  Prestel Verlag:  Munich,  1988.
Schmitz, Robert. Les Baholoholo (Congo belge).  A. DeWit:  Brussels,  1912.
Schneider, Betty. "Body Decoration in Mozambique."  African Arts.  Vol. 6, No. 2, 1973, pp. 26-31, 88.
Schneider, Elizabeth Ann. "Ndebele Mural Art."  African Arts.  Vol. 18, No. 3, 1985, pp. 60-66, 100.
Schneider, Harold. "Turu Esthetic Concepts."  American Anthropologist.  Vol. 68, No. 1 (February), 1966, pp. 156-60.
Schomerus-Gernbock, Lotte. Die Mahafaly: Eine ethnische Gruppe im Sud-westen Madagaskars.  D. Reimer:  Berlin,  1981.
Schröder, Günter, and Dieter Siebel. Ethnographic Survey of Southeastern Liberia: The Liberian Kran and the Sapo.  Liberian Studies Association in Amrica for the Tubman Center of African Culture:  Newark, Del.,  1974.
Schultess, Simon. Africa.  Simon & Schuster, Inc.:  New York,  1959.
Schwab, George. "Tribes of the Liberian Hinterland."  Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology.  Vol. 31, 1947.
Schwartz, Nancy Beth. Mambilla: Art and Material Culture.  Milwaukee Public Museum:  Milwaukee,  1972.
Schweeger-Hefel, Annemarie. Masken und Mythen: Sozialstrukturen der Nyonyosi und Sikomse in Obervolta.  A. Schendl:  Vienna,  1980.
Schweinfurth, George. The Heart of Africa: Three Years' Travels and Adventures in the Unexplored Regions of Central Africa from 1868-1871..  Harper and Brothers:  New York,  1874.
Sekintu, C. M., and K. P. Wachsmann. Wall Patterns in Hima Huts.  Uganda Museum:  Kampala,  1956.
Seligman, Thomas, and  Kristyne Loughran, eds. The Art of Being Tuareg. Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum, 2006.
Senghor, Léopold Sédar. "Standards Critiques de l'Art Africain."  African Arts.  Vol. 1, No. 1, 1967, pp. 6-9.
Shack, William A. The Central Ethiopians: Amhara, Tigrinya and Related Peoples.  International African Institute:  London,  1974.
Shädler, Karl Ferdinand. Weaving in Africa South of the Sahara.  Panterra:  Munich,  1987.
Shaeffner, André. Origine des instruments de musique: Introduction ethnologie à l'histoire de la musique, Reprint.  Mouton:  La Haye,  1936.
Shanklin, Eugenia. "The Odyssey of the Afo-A-Kom."  African Arts.  Vol. 23, No. 4, 1990, pp. 62-69, 95, 96.
Shaw, Thomas. Irony and Illusion in the Architecture of Imperial Dakar. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
Shaw, Thurstan, editor.  The Archaeology of Africa: Foods, Metals, and Towns.  Routledge:  London,  1993.
Shaw, Thurstan. "A Note on Trade and the Tsoede Bronzes."  West African Journal of Archaeology.  Vol. 3, 1973, pp. 233-238.
Shaw, Thurston. "The Igbo-Ukwo Bronzes."  African Arts.  Vol. 6, No. 1, 1970, pp. 18-19.
Shaw, Thurston. "The Nok Sculptures of Nigeria."  Scientific America.  Vol. 244, No. 2, 1981, pp. 154-166.
Shaw, Thurston. Unearthing Igbo-Ukwu.  Oxford University Press:  Ibadan,  1977.
Sheddick, Vernon George John. The Southern Sotho.  International African Institute:  London,  1953.
Shorter, Aylward. Priest in the Village: Experiences of African Community.  G. Chapman:  London,  1979.
Sieber, Roy, and Arnold Rubin. Sculpture of Black Africa: The Paul Tishman Collection.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art:  Los Angeles,  1968.
Sieber, Roy, and Arnold Rubin. Sculpture of Black Africa.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art:  Los Angeles,  1969.
Sieber, Roy, and Roslyn Adele Walker. African Art in the Cycle of Life.  National Museum of African Art by the Smithsonian Institution Press:  Washington D.C., and Lodon,  1987.
Sieber, Roy. "African Arts."  in African, Pacific, and Pre-Columbian Art in the Indiana University Art Museum, P. Darrish, ed.  Indiana University Art Museum:  Bloomington,  1986.
Sieber, Roy. "Art and History in Ghana."  in Primitive Art and Society, A. Forge, ed.  1973.  pp. 70-96.
Sieber, Roy. "The Arts and Their Changing Social Function."  in Anthropology and Art: Readings in Cross-Cultural Aesthetics, C. Otten, ed.  Natural History Press:  1971.
Sieber, Roy. African Furniture and Household Objects.  The American Federation of Arts:  New York,  1980.
Sieber, Roy. African Textiles and Decorative Arts.  Museum of Modern Art:  New York,  1972.
Sieber, Roy. Sculpture of Northern Nigeria.  Museum of Primitive Art:  New York,  1961.
Siegmann, William. Rock of the Ancestors.  Cuttington University College, Africana Museum:  Suakoko, Liberia,  1977.
Silverman, Philip. "National Commitment Among Local Elites in Western Zambia."  The Journal of Modern African Studies.  Vol. 22, No. December, 1984, pp. 152-162.
Silverman, Ray. "Bono Brass Casting."  African Arts.  Vol. 19, No. 4, 1986, pp. 60-65, 85-86.
Silverman, Raymond. "Kuduo: Form and Function."  in Akan Transformations: Problems in Ghanaian Art History, D. Ross, ed.  Museum of Cultural History (UCLA):  Los Angeles,  1983.  pp. 10-29.
Simmons, William Scranton. Eyes of the Night: Witchcraft among a Senegalese People.  Little, Brown and Company:  Boston,  1971.
Siroto, Leon. "The Face of Bwiti."  African Arts.  Vol. 1, No. 3, 1968, pp. 22-27, 86-89, 96.
Siroto, Leon. African Spirit Images and Identities.  Pace Primitive and Ancient Art:  New York,  1976.
Siroto, Leon. East of the Atlantic, West of the Congo: Art of Equatorial Africa.  The Fine Arts Musuems of San Francisco:  San Francisco,  1995.
Siroto, Leon. Masks and Social Organization among the Bakwele People of Western Equatorial Africa.  University Microfilms International:  Ann Arbor, Michigan,  1979.
Skinner, Elliott Percival. The Mossi of Burkina Faso: Chiefs, Politicians and Soldiers.  Waveland Press:  Prospect Heights, Ill.,  1989.
Skougstad, Norman. Traditional Sculpture from Upper Volta.  The African-American Institute:  New York,  1978.
Smith, Edwin William. The Golden Stool: Some Aspects of the Conflict of Cultures in Modern Africa, Reprint (1969).  Afro-Am Press:  Chicago,  1926.
Smith, Fred T. "Gurensi Wall Painting."  African Arts.  Vol. 11, No. June, 1978, pp. 36-41+.
Soares, Paolo. "Traditions et Apports Exterieurs."  in Art Makonde: Tradition et Modernité.  Association Française d'Action Artistique:  Paris,  1989.
Söderberg, Bertil. "Ancestor Figures of the Babembe."  in Connaissance des Arts Tribaux.  Vol. 5.  Geneva,  1975.
Söderberg, Bertil. “Bembe”. Grove Art Online, 2003.
Söderberg, Bertil. "Les Figures d'Ancetres chez les Babembe."  Arts d'Afrique Noire.  No. 13-14, 1975, pp. (13):21-33 and (14):14-37.
Söderberg, Bertil. Les intruments de musique au Bas-Congo et dans les régions avoisinantes. Étude ethnographique..  The Ethnographic Museum of Sweden:  Stockholm,  1956.
Soppelsa, Robert. Terracotta traditions of the Akan of southeastern Ivory Coast.  Ohio State University:  1990.
Soret, Marcel. Les Kongo nord-occidentaux, avec la collaborations d'André Jacquot pour les questions de linguistiques.  Presses universitaires de France:  Paris,  1959.
Sote, Adetoun. The Egba- Ake Community of Abeokuta.  Book Builders:  Ibadan,  1990.
Sousbergh, Leon de. l'Art Pende.  Palais des Academies:  Brussels,  1959.
Spear, Thomas. “Swahili History and Society to 1900: A Classified Bibliography,” History in Africa 27, 339-373.
Spencer, Paul. The Samburu: A Study of Gerontocracy in a Nomadic Tribe.  University of California Press:  Berkeley and Los Angeles,  1965.
Spieth, Jakob. Die Ewe-Völkes: Material zer kunde des Ewe-Völkes in Deutsch-Togo.  D. Reimer:  Berlin,  1906.
Stahl, Kathleen. History of the Chagga People of Kilimanjaro.  Mouton and Co.:  The Hague,  1964.
Stanley, Janet L. African Art: A Bibliographic Guide.  Africana Publishing Co.:  New York,  1985-1996.
Stappers, Leo. Zuid-Kisongye bloemlezing: Milembwe-Teksten.  Musée royal du Congo belge:  Tervuren,  1953.
Stauder, Jack. The Majangir: Ecology and Society of a Southwest Ethiopian People.  Cambridge University Press:  Cambridge,  1971.
Stefaniszyn, Bronislaw. Social and Ritual Life of the Ambo of Northern Rhodesia.  Oxford Univerity for the International African Institute:  London,  1964.
Steiner, Christopher B. African Art in Transit.  Cambridge University Press:  Cambridge,  1994.
Stenning, Derrick J. Savannah Nomads: A Study of the Wodaabe Pastoral Fulani of Western Bornu Province, Northern Region, Nigeria.  Oxford University Press for the International African Institute:  London,  1959.
Stevens, Phillips. The Stone Images of Esie, Nigeria.  Ibadan University and the Nigerian Federal Department of Antiquities:  Ibadan, Nigeria,  1978.
Stevenson-Hamilton, James. The Barotseland Journal of 1898-1899.  Chatto and Windus:  London,  1953.
Stirke, D. W. Barotseland: Eight Years Among the Barotse.  John Bale, Sons and Daniellson, Ltd.:  London,  n.d..
Stoller, Paul. In Sorcery's Shadow: A Memoir of Apprenticeship among the Songhay of Niger.  University of Chicago Press:  Chicago,  1987.
Stone, Ruth M. Let the Inside Be Sweet: The Interpretation of Music Event Among the Kpelle of Liberia.  Indian University Press:  Bloomington,  1982.
Storch. "Sitten Gebrauche und Rechtspflege bei den Bewohnern Usambaras und Pares."  Mitteilungen an den Deutsche Schutzgebieten.  Vol. 8, 1895, pp. 310-.
Stossel, Arnulf, editor.  Afrikanische Keramic Traditionelle Handwerkünst Südlich der Sahara.  Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde:  Munich,  1984.
Strecker, Ivo A. The Social Practice of Symbolization: An Anthropological Analysis.  Athlone Press:  London,  1988.
Strother Z. S. Pende (Visions of Africa). Milan: 5 Continents, 2007.
Strother, Z. S. Inventing Masks: Agency and History in the Art of the Central Pende. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. 
Strother, Zoe S. "Eastern Pende Constructions of Secrecy."  in Secrecy: African Art That Conceals and Reveals, M. H. Nooter, ed.  Museum for African Art and Prestel:  New York,  1993.
Stuhlmann, F. Handwerk und Industrie in Ostafrika.  Hamburgischen Kolonialinstituts:  Hamburg,  1910.
Sumaili, Tobia W.C. Shimunenga and the Traditional Culture of the Baila.  Institute for African Studies:  Lusaka,  1986.
Sumbwa, Nyamba. Zambian Proverbs.  ZPC Publications and Mutlimedia Publications:  1993.
Summers, Roger. Inyanga: Prehistoric Settlements in Southern Rhodesia.  Cambridge University Press:  Cambridge,  1958.
Surgy, École pratique des hautes études and Albert de, editor.  Fétiche: Objets-enchantés, mots réalisés. Systèmes de pensée en Afrique noire, cahier 8, 1985.  École pratique des hautes études (section des sciences religieuses):  Paris,  1987.
Surgy, École pratique des hautes études and Albert de, editor.  Fétiches II: Puissance des objets, charme des mots.  Systèmes des pensée en Afrique noire, cahier 12, 1993.  École pratique des hautes études (Section des sciences religieuses):  Paris,  1993.
Sutton, J. E. G, "Igbo-Ukwu and the Nile," African Archaeological Review, 03/2001, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp. 49-62.
Swantz, Lloyd W. The Zaramo of Tanzania.  Nordic Project:  Dar es Salaam,  1966.
Swantz, Marja Liisa. Religious and Magical Rites Connected with the Life Cycle of Women in Some Bantu Ethnic Groups of Tanzania.  Nordic Tanganyika Project:  Dar es Salaam,  1966.
Swantz, Marja-Liisa. Blood, Milk and Death: Body Symbols and the Power of Regeneration among the Zaramo of Tanzania.  Bergin and Garvey:  Westport, Conn.,  1995.
Swantz, Marja-Liisa. Ritual and Symbol in Transitional Zaramo Society with Special Reference to Women.  Scandanavian Institute of African Studies:  Uppsala,  1986.
Swartz, Marc J. The Way the World Is: Cultural Processes and Social Relations among the Mombasa Swahili.  University of California Press:  Berkeley and Los Angeles,  1991.
Tagliaferri, Aldo, and Arno Hammacher. Fabulous Ancestors: Stone Carvings from Sierra Leone and Guinea.  Africana Publishing Company:  New York,  1974.
Tardits, Claude. "The Kingdom of Bamum (Cameroon)."  in Kings of Africa: Art and Authority in Central Africa, E. B. a. H.-J. Koloss, ed.  Foundation Kings of Africa:  Maastricht,  1992.
Tardits, Claude. Bamiliké de l'ouest Cameroun: Contribution à l'étude des populations.  Berger-Levrault:  Paris,  1960.
Tardits, Claude. Contribution de la recherch ethnologique à l'histoire des civilisations du Cameroun.  Éditions du centre national de la recherche scientfique:  Paris,  1981.
Tardits, Claude. Le royaume Bamoum.  Armand Colin:  Paris,  1980.
Taylor, Brian K. The Western Lacustrine Bantu (Nyoro, Toro, Nyankore, Kiga, Haya, and Zinza, with Sections on the Amba and Konjo).  International African Institute:  London,  1962.
Temples, Placid. Bantu Philosophy.  Presence Africaine:  Paris,  1959.
Tengan, Edward. The Land as Being and Cosmos: The Institution of the Earth Cult among the Sisala of Northwestern Ghana.  P. Lang:  New York,  1991.
Terray, Emmanuel. L'organization sociale des Dida de Cote d'Ivoire: Essai sur un village dida de la région de Lakora.  Université d'Abidjan:  Abidjan,  1969.
Tessman, Gunter. Die Bafia und Die Kultur der MittelKamerun-Bantu.  Strecker un Schröder:  Stuttgart,  1934.
Tew, Mary Douglas. Peoples of the Lake Nyasa Region.  Oxford University Press for the International African Institute:  London,  1950.
Thiele, G. "State Intervention and Commodity Production in Ugogo: A Historical Perspective."  Africa.  Vol. 54, No. 3, 1984, pp. 92-107.
Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. Warrior Herdsmen.  Alfred A. Knopf:  New York,  1965.
Thomas, L.V. Les Diola: Essai d'analyse fonctionelle sur une population de Bassse-Casamance.  IFAN:  Dakar,  1959.
Thomé, P. "Die Götzen an Kilimandsharo."  Globus.  Vol. 83, 1903, pp. 231-235.
Thompson, Jerry L., and Susan Vogel. Closeup: Lessons in the Art of Seeing.  African Sculptur from an American Collection and the Horstmann Collection.  Center for African Art:  New York,  1990.
Thompson, Robert Farris, and Joseph Cornet. The Four Moments of the Sun: Kongo Art in the Two Worlds.  National Gallery of Art:  Washington, D.C.,  1981.
Thompson, Robert Farris. "An Aesthetic of the Cool."  African Arts.  Vol. 7, No. Autumn, 1973, pp. 40-43, 64-67, 89-91.
Thompson, Robert Farris. "The Sign of the Divine King: An Essay on Yoruba Bead-Embroidered Crowns with Veil and Bird Decorations."  in African Art and Leadership, D. F. a. H. Cole, ed.  University of Wisconsin Press:  Madison,  1972.
Thompson, Robert Farris. "Yoruba Aesthetic Criticism."  in The Traditional Artist in African Societies, W. d'Azevedo, ed.  Indiana University Press:  Bloomington,  1973.
Thompson, Robert Farris. African Art in Motion: Icon and Act in the Katherine Coryton White Collection.  University of California Museum of Art:  Los Angeles,  1974.
Thompson, Robert Farris. Black Gods and Kings: Yoruba Art at UCLA.  Museum and Laboratories of Ethnic Arts and Technology:  Los Angeles,  1970.
Thompson, Robert Farris. Face of the Gods: Art and Altars of Africa and the African Americas. Munich: Prestel for the Museum for African Art, New York, 1993.
Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy.  Random House:  New York,  1983.
Thompson, Robert Farris. Paintings from a Single Heart, Preliminary Remarks on Bark Cloth Designs of the Mbute Women of Haut-Zaire.  Fred and Jens Jahn:  Munich,  1983.
Thomson, J. To the Central African Lakes and Back.   London,  1881.
Thurnwald, Richard C. Black and White in East Africa.  London,  1935.
Timmermans, Paul. "Essai de Typologie de la Sculpture des Bena Luluwa du Kasai."  Africa Tervuren.  Vol. 12, No. 1, 1966, pp. 17-27.
Timmermans, Paul. "Les Lwalwa."  Africa-Tervuren.  Vol. 13, No. 3-4, 1967, pp. 73-90.
Tobisson, Eva. Family Dynamics among the Kuria: Agro-Pastorialists in Northern Tanzania.  Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis:  Goteborg,  1986.
Torday, Emil. On the Trail of the Bushongo.  Seeley, Service and Company, Ltd.:  London,  1925.
Tracey, Hugh. Chopi Musicians: Their Music, Poetry and Instruments.  Oxford University Press:  London,  1948.
Trilles, R.P. Les Pygmées de la foret équatoriale.  Oxford University Press:  London,  1932.
Trouwborst, A. A., M. d'Hertefelt, and J. H. Scherer. Les anciens royaumes de la zone inter-lacustre méridionale: Rwanda, Burundi, Buha.  Interantional African Institute:  London,  1962.
Trowell, Margaret, and K.P. Wachsmann. Tribal Crafts of Uganda.  Oxford University Press:  London,  1953.
Trowell, Margaret. African Design, 3rd.  Praeger:  New York,  1971.
Tubiana, Joseph, and Marie-José Tubiana. The Zaghawa from an ecological Perspective: Foodgathering, the Pastoral System, Tradition and Development of the Zaghawa of the Sudan and Chad.  A. A. Balkema:  Rotterdam,  1977.
Tufuo, J. W., and C. E. Donkor. Ashantis of Ghana: People with a Soul.  Anowuo Educational Publications:  Accra,  1969.
Turle, Gillies. The Art of the Maasai: 300 Newly Discovered Objects and Works of Art.  Alfred A. Knopf:  New York,  1992.
Turnbull, Colin M. The Forest People.  Simon and Schuster:  New York,  1961.
Turnbull, Colin M. The Mountain People.  Simon and Schusters:  New York,  1972.
Turner, Edith L. B. Experiencing Ritual: A New Interpretation of African Healing.  University of Pennsylvania Press:  Philadelphia,  1992.
Turner, Victor Witter. Luanda Rites and Ceremonies.  Rhodes-Livingstone Museum:  Livingstone,  1953.
Turner, Victor Witter. The Anthropology of Performance.  PAS Publications:  New York,  1986.
Turner, Victor Witter. The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual.  Cornell University Press:  Ithaca,  1970.
Turner, Victor Witter. The Lozi Peoples of North-Western Rhodesia.  Internation African Institute:  London,  1953.
Turner, Victor, editor.  Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual.  Smithsonian Institution Press:  Washington, D.C.,  1982.
Turner, Victor. Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society.  Cornell University Press:  Ithaca,  1974.
Turner, Victor. Schism and Continuity in an African Society: A Study of Ndembu Village Life.  Manchester University Press:  Manchester,  1957.